Deep space exploration is the branch of astronomy, astronautics and space technology that participates in the exploration of distant regions of outer space. The physical exploration of space is carried out both by manned space flights (deep space astronautics) and by robotic spaceships. The scientific field that deals with the study of outer space is called astronomy. The name comes from the Greek words astron, which means “star”, and.
In 1968, NASA launched Orbiting Astronomical Observatory 2 (opens in a new tab), dubbed Stargazer, the first attempt to study the universe in general from space, according to the United States. During the 1960s and 1970s, NASA also launched a series of space probes called Mariner, which studied Venus, Mars and Mercury. The scientists sought to better understand the internal dynamics and general behavior of the Sun, the underlying causes of variations in solar activity and how those variations spread through space and ultimately affect the Earth's magnetosphere and upper atmosphere. Astroecology refers to the interactions of life with space environments and resources, on planets, asteroids and comets.
These stress responses could also allow them to survive in harsh space conditions, although evolution also imposes some restrictions on their use as analogs to alien life. In addition, many other countries became involved in space activities through the participation of their scientists in specific missions. In particular, the presence in space of human beings as experimenters and, in some cases, as experimental subjects facilitated studies in biomedicine and materials science. Early research in space science showed, for example, that luminous atmospheric displays known as auroras are the result of this interaction, and scientists came to understand that the magnetosphere is an extremely complex phenomenon.
This interdisciplinary field encompasses research on the origin of planetary systems, the origins of organic compounds in space, interactions between rocks and water and carbon, abiogenesis on Earth, planetary habitability, research on biosignatures for the detection of life, and studies on the potential of life to adapt to the challenges of Earth and outer space. The objective is to detect those organisms that are capable of surviving the conditions of space travel and maintaining the capacity to proliferate. They include Japan, China, Canada, India and several European countries such as the United Kingdom, France, Italy and Germany, which act alone and through cooperative organizations, in particular the European Space Agency. To carry out the necessary research to address these scientific issues, the United States, Europe, the Soviet Union and Japan developed a variety of space missions, often in a coordinated manner.
During the time since the launch of the first artificial satellite in 1957, astronauts have traveled to the Moon, probes have explored the solar system, and instruments in space have discovered thousands of planets around other stars. The first scientific discovery made with instruments that orbit in space was the existence of the Van Allen radiation belts, discovered by Explorer 1 in 1958.According to the European Space Agency (opens in a new tab) (ESA), it systematically observed and recorded the periodic movements of heavenly bodies, and there are also similar records from early China. Meanwhile, instruments in space, such as the Kepler space telescope, and terrestrial instruments have discovered thousands of exoplanets, planets that orbit other stars. .