The United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UNCOPUOS) oversees five international treaties that support space law. These treaties are the Outer Space Treaty (196), the Rescue and Return Agreement (196), the Liability Convention (197), and the Registration Convention (197).The Outer Space Treaty, which was opened for signature in 1967, is the most important of these treaties. It serves as a constitutional legal framework and set of principles and procedures that constitute space law. Article VI of the Outer Space Treaty allows for private commercial activities in outer space, but they must be authorized by the State party, which is also responsible for those activities.
The Registration Convention is a fairly simple treaty that plays a fundamental role in strengthening and ensuring the success of other United Nations treaties related to space. It requires countries to register their space objects with the United Nations. This helps countries identify and notify the appropriate launching party responsible for a spacecraft in danger. The Convention on Spatial Responsibility was officially opened for signature in 1972 and entered into force in 1972. It establishes a framework for resolving disputes relating to issues that arise in space.
The Convention on Space Liability, or formally the Convention on International Liability for Damage Caused by Space Objects, delves into the regime of international liability introduced in article VII of the Outer Space Treaty. It requires countries to pay compensation for any damage to another nation's equipment or facilities caused by another party. Space legislation also covers national laws, and many countries have passed national space laws in recent years. These laws are designed to protect against potential risks associated with space exploration, such as colonization of organisms or synthetic phenomenology (such as artificial life).The Legal Subcommittee of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space has been a principal forum for the debate and negotiation of international agreements relating to outer space. All activities in space must be linked to a nation, and any damage to another nation's equipment or facilities caused by another party must be fully reimbursed to that nation.