Spaceflight (or spaceflight) is an application of astronautics to fly spaceships to or through outer space, with or without humans on board. Space exploration is the use of astronomy and space technology to explore outer space. Although space exploration is carried out mainly by astronomers with telescopes, its physical exploration is carried out by both unmanned robotic space probes and manned space flights. Space exploration, like its classic form of astronomy, is one of the main sources of space science.
Development of large reusable spaceships with wings capable of transporting people and equipment to Earth orbit in a way that would make access to space routine and cost-effective. While the possibility of exploring space has long excited people from many walks of life, throughout most of the late 20th and early 21st century, only national governments could afford the very high costs of launching people and machines into space. Titan has the distinction of being the only object in the Outer Solar System that has been explored with a lander, the Huygens probe deployed by the Cassini spacecraft. Through it, NASA relies on SpaceX and Boeing to build spaceships capable of taking humans to orbit.
After the first 20 years of exploration, the focus shifted from one-time flights to renewable equipment, such as the space shuttle program, and from competition to cooperation, as was the case with the International Space Station (ISS). Beyond the technical factors that could generalize life in space, it has been suggested that the lack of private property, the inability or difficulty of establishing property rights in space, have been an impediment to the development of a space intended for human habitation. More than 15 years after SpaceShipOne arrived in space, several companies began carrying out these types of suborbital flights. They illustrate a reality that has remained constant for half a century as space capabilities develop and can often be used for both military and civil purposes.
The commercialization of space began with the launch of private satellites by NASA or other space agencies. This reality meant that space exploration had to serve very broad interests and, in fact, it has done so in a variety of ways. China is planning a large multi-module space station capable of housing three taikonauts, and has already launched two test vehicles in orbit, the Tiangong-1 and the Tiangong-2, which burned safely in the Earth's atmosphere after several years in space. The first era of space exploration was driven by a space race between the Soviet Union and the United States.
Although the observation of objects in space, known as astronomy, predates documented history, it was the development of large and relatively efficient rockets in the mid-20th century that allowed physical exploration of space to become a reality. Half a dozen space agencies have designed spaceships that get rid of the restraints of Earth's gravity and travel to the Moon or Mars. Spaceships are no longer protected from solar radiation because they are located above the Earth's magnetic field; the radiation hazard is even more powerful when entering deep space.